The History of Medieval Assam from Sukaphaa to Purandar Singha

Assam History : Names of famous Ahom Kings and details of their Ruling Period 

Hello, aspirants are you preparing for APSC Prelims or Mains, Assam TET or any other Assam Govt Exams? If yes, then you must be aware of the most important Assam History for upcoming exams. Therefore every aspirants need to know the Assam History specially the History of Ahom Kingdom for any Assam govt exams. In this regard "World_Polity" decides to provide you the most important Assam History topic, the history of Medieval Assam from Sukaphaa to Purandar Singha from 1228 to 1838 for the upcoming exams. Infact the Ahom History will be a key topic in the exams like APSC Prelims, Mains, Assam TET & any other Assam Govt Exams. So the names of famous Ahom Kings and details of their ruling period from 1228 to 1838 for the upcoming exams will be a pedestrian to crack your exam.

Assam History : Ahom Kings and details of their Tenure

In this article, we have enlisted all the names of famous Ahom Kings and details of their ruling period from 1228 to 1838. So, read all these important history of Ahom Kingdom for competitive exams. The topic Assam History is extremely important and should be a part of your preparation. Infact the history of Medieval Assam from Sukaphaa to Purandar Singha is very important for any Assam govt exams.

The History of Medieval Assam from Sukaphaa to Purandar Singha

Assam History : History of Ahom Kingdom

In the age of the ‘Mahabharata’ Assam was called Pragjyotisha. But to the Puranas and Tantras, the land was called Kamrupa. From the period of the Ahom rule this region came to be called 'Asama' or 'Unparallel' after their racial connotation. 

By the 13th century AD the political importance of Kamrup was gradually declining as smaller states emerged one after another. The political unity among these states was missing. At this juncture of history, the coming of the Ahoms marked a watershed in Assamese history. The 13th century may be regarded as the end of ancient Kamrup and the beginning of medieval Assam . 

Well during this medieval period in Assam a Shan group, led by Sukaphaa, established the Ahom kingdom. The Ahom’s entered Assam fully assimilated and ruled Assam for nearly six hundred years. The period of Ahom rule is a glorious chapter in the history of Assam. 

The Ahom dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai Mountains. The Ahom dynasty was well known for maintaining its sovereignty and successfully resisting the Mughal expansion in Northeast India.

It is between 13th and 19th century that several tribal communities also came into the historical forefront of Assam. Kacharis, Chutias and Koch were the prominent tribal groups that were found in the medieval times of Assam. 

The Ahom dynasty who ruled Assam nearly 598 years there were at least 41 Kings in the Ahom Kingdom beginning with Sukaphaa in 1228 and ending with Purandar Singha in 1838.

The rule of this dynasty ended with the Burmese invasion of Assam and the subsequent annexation by the British East India Company following the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826. The British emperor took charge of the state and thus begun the colonial era of Assam.

The name ‘Aham’ or ‘Asom’ was probably given by the Ahoms who came to Assam in 1228 A.D. Even though the origin is ambiguous but it is believed that the modern name Assam is itself an anglicization.

The History of Medieval Assam from Sukaphaa to Purandar Singha

Here are the brief detail of all the names of famous Ahom Kings and details of their ruling period from 1228 to 1838. This period was called as the medieval period of Assam which was rulled by the Ahoms beginning with Sukaphaa in 1228 AD and ending with Purandar Singha in 1838 AD.

Sukaphaa (1228-1268 AD)

Sukaphaa laid down the foundation of the Ahom kingdom in Assam. This testimony is established by the chronicles called 'Ahom Buranjis.' Many of the local tribals like the Morans and Barahis were subjugated to assert their political supremacy. But Sukapha followed a generous policy in treating his enemies (vanquished or unvanquished) in a polite and humble way, i.e. by establishing political as well as matrimonial alliances. From 1253 AD after the discovery of Charaideo it became the capital. The Ahoms gave the name of ‘Mungdunsunkham (the coutry of golden gardens) to Assam.

Between 1376-1380 AD no worthy prince could be found suitable enough to rule resulting in some sort of confusion for sometime. The Bar Gohain and Burah Gohain carried on the administration for four years themselves as the kingless state led to many difficulties and disturbances. Finally the ministers raised Tyaokhamti the third son of Sukhangpha to the throne in 1380 AD.

Sudangpha (1397-1406 AD)

Sudangpha was also known as the 'Bamuni Raja' for his associations with the 'Brahmins. He made his capital at Charguya. It was the beginning of a period of Brahmanical influence in the Ahom administration. He quelled the Tipam rebellion and established friendship with the Nara Raja of Burma.

Suhungmung (1497-1539 AD)

Suhungmung also known as the 'Dihingia Raja' as he was the most famous king of the Dihingia clan. The increasing importance of the Brahmins is proved by the fact that he assumed the Hindu title of 'Swarganarayan.' 

He created the administrative post of 'Borpatra Gohain,' the third important post after Bar Gohain and Burha Gohain. Under his supervision the first ever census of the population was taken in 1510 AD. After the subjugation of the Chutias of Sadiya, a new officer of state called Sadiya-Khowa Gohain was created to administer the Sadiya region. About 300 Ahom families were shifted from Garhagoan to Sadiya for settlement. 

The Muslims invaded his kingdom a number of times in 1527, 1531 and 1532. In the battle of Bharali in 1533 AD the Ahoms defeated them. In this famous battle Mula Gabharu, the widow of the great Ahom general Frasenmung died a heroine's death. 

He also created the post of Marangi - Khowa Gohain to administer the territories conquered from the Kacharis. He is reputed to have introduced fire arms in Assam and followed the Saka- era in the administration. 

Susengpha (1603-1641 AD)

Susengpha also known as the Burha Raja and adopted the Hindu name of Swargadeo Pratap Singha. He assumed the throne at a very advanced age. He was involved in warfare with the Mughals,  Kacharis etc. He created the post of Bar Phukan or governor of the conquered provinces. He was a benevolent and efficient administrator. He built the cities of Abhaypur and Mathurapur. 

Susengpha organized the system of Paik, a significant step in the administrative process. In this system a regular gradation of officers like Hazarika, Saikia, Bora were appointed. He also introduced the system of paying tax or ‘ Posa ' to the Miris , Daflas , Akas and Charduaria Bhutias . Under this system a number of villages at the foot of every hill was placed under the control of the tribe. 

He also introduced a system of khel of naked monks . He also assumed the title of ' Gajapati or lord of elephants for the love of elephants .

Sutamla (1648-1663 AD) 

Sutamla also known as the ' Bhagania Raja ' besides assuming the Hindu name Jayadhvaj Singha . His reign is remarkable for the Mughal invasion of his kingdom led by Aurangzeb's powerful general Mirzumla in 1662 AD . For the occupation of his kingdom by the Mughal forces for sometime, he had to flee from his capital for sometime. 

Owing to this flight from Garhgaon he was popularly known as Bhagania or fugitive king. Mizumala was accompanied by a chronicler named Shihabuddin Talish throughout his expedition. His account 'Fathiyah-i-Ibriyah' that provides an interesting account of Assam of the contemporary period. The description of Garhgaon by this writer is also breath taking.

Supungmung (1663-1670 AD)

Supungmung assumed the Hindu name of Chakradhwaj Singh. During his period the war with the Mughals was renewed. This period also witnessed the emergence of Lachit Barphukan, the son of Momai Tamuli, the Bar Baruah. In 1667 A.D. he was given the command of the Ahom army to wrest Gauhati from the Mughals led by Ram Singh. 

A fort was created at Saraighat or Srighal, where work of the completion of the barrage (garh) rested on Lachit's maternal uncle, who was beheaded by Lachit himself for the neglect of his dutya great patrotic assertion. His patriotic enthusiasm inspired his people to complete the fortifications within a fortnight. The ruler died in 1670A.D.

Sunyatpha (1670-1673 A.D.)

Sunyatpha's Hindu name was Udayaditya Singh. The Mughals under Ram Singha continued their struggle to occupy the place of strategic importance, Gauhati. But Lachit Barphukan was awaiting a confrontation with them. This resulted in the reputed battle of Saraighat in 1671 A.D. Two battles were fought in land and water. 

The Ahoms were victorious on land, but their navy had to retreat. At this critical moment Lachit Barphukan, who was sick arrived with new reinforcements. This inspired his army with new vigour and enthusiasm to fight the battle to earn a hard fought vicotry. This victory sealed the fate of the Mughal expeditions.

Sulikpha (1679-1681 A.D.)

Sulikpha, for his tender age at the accession to the throne he was popularly known as the Lara Raja (boy king), while his Hindu name was Ratnadhvaj Singha. At the advice of Laluk Sola Bar Phukan, Sulikpha was determined to kill or maim all the descendents of the former kings. Several hundred descendents were either got rid of or maimed. 

However, he failed to find one of his most formidable rivals- Gadapani, who was the son of Gobar, of the royal clan. He succeeded in escaping from his pursuers. His wife, princess Jaymoti was arrested and taken to the king. She was subjected to various tortures to divulge the hiding place of her husband. She remained loyal and faithful to him, whereas Godapani took refuge in the Naga hills. She refused to give it out and died amidst tortures in 1680. 

This episode immortalized the positions of Assamese women's faith and devotion to their husbands. Many a books are written and plays performed on this tragic episode. In 1681 however, with the help of the Bar Phukan a general discontent arose in the kingdom dislodging the incompetent Lara Raja and placing Gadapani on the Ahom throne.

Gadapani (1681-1696 AD)

Gadapani who took the Hindu name of Gadadhar Singha, he became the next Ahom monarch, besides being the founder of the famous Tungkhungia dysnasty. He was the first monarch to have introduced the system of surveying the land. He persecuted a large number of Vaishnava saints. 

Sukhrungpha (1699-1714 A.D.)

Taking the Hindu name of Rudra Singha, Sukhrungpha ascended the throne. The new king immediately began to reverse his father's policy in regard to Vaishnava Gossains by stopping their persecution. There were occasional clashes with the Kacharis and Jaintias. For the better administration of his kingdom, he introduced five new Khels-Kataki, Kakati, Bairagi, Khaund and Dalai. He completed the survey of Sibsagar and Nowgaon that was started by his father. 

Sukhrungpha constructed the city of Rangpur. The tank and temple near the Jaysagar was built by him. He maintained cultural contact with Bengal, besides encouraging a number of Brahmin families of Bengal to migrate to his kingdom. He was a follower of the Sakta religion.

Siva Singha (1714-1744 A.D.)

During his reign queen Phuleswari was declared the chief queen. In this period Puranas and Sanskrit scriptures were translated into Assamese. He introduced a system of recording of land in state papers for the first time. They contained not only the records of all the village lands; a descriptive account of all kinds of cultivable land and rent-free lands was also maintained.

Rajeswar Singha (1751-1769 A.D.)

Rajeswar Singha made his capital at Rangpur on the advice of the astrologers. A pleasure seeking ruler, he left the state at the hands of the Bar Barua Kirtichandra Gendhela. The Bar Baruah was a haughty and jealous official who was described as “Jalam Bota' or imitation Ahom. Involved in a conspiracy the Bar Barua was later executed by the king. He also built the Talatalghar and Karenghar- a royal palace at Garhgaon.

Lakshmi Singha (1769-1780 A.D.)

During the reign of Lakshmi Singha the first Moamaria rebellion took place in 1769 A.D. A Maomaria usurped the throne, named Ramakanta. But he was defeated and Lakshmi Singha was reinstalled in 1770 A.D. 

Gaurinath Singha (1780-1794 A.D.)

During the period of Gaurinath Singha the second Moamaria rebellion broke out. The loyal Burha Gohain, Purnananda, a patriotic official tried unsuccessfully to stem the tide of the rebellion. In 1786 A.D. however the third Moamaria rebellion took place . The Burha Gohain continued his resistence. Then Gaurinath Singha appealed to the English (who were already in Assam) for help. With a positive response in 1792 A.D. captain Welsh led an expedition that routed the Moamarias to bring back Gaurinath to the throne. Captain introduced opium cultivation in Assam for the very first time.

Chandrakanta Singh (1810-1818 AD)

Chandrakanta Singh, appointed Badan Chandra as the Bar Phukan, that proved disastrous by choice, as he was very oppressive and cruel to the general masses. Later he fled to Kolkata. There he struck friendship with a Burmese agent and went with him to the Burmese capital of Amarapur. This resulted in a series of invasions from Barma, the first one being in 1817 AD.

Purandar Singha (1818-1819 AD)

Under the patronage of Ruchinath Burhagohain, Purandar Singha (1818-19) was installed as the king. During his period the second invasion of Burmese took place. Purandar Singha and Ruchinath fled to Bengal and approached the British for assistance but their request was not accepted by the British .

Well here we have provided you the brief detail about the History of Medieval Assam from Sukaphaa to Purandar Singha for the preparation of your upcoming Competitive Exams. This article will be updated soon and we are going to add more related to Assam History - the history of Ahom Kingdom to help our aspirants to know more for the preparation of upcoming much awaited Assam govt exams. Thank You. 

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