Agricultural Revolutions in India : Indian Agriculture and its Challenges

We all know about the importance of Agriculture in human life. However, some circumstances in the field of Agriculture and allied activities lead to some revolutions that is Agriculture revolutions. In this post, we will let you know about Agriculture revolution in India.

The agricultural revolution in India refers to the significant change in the agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies implemented. These change the production ways and increase the production rate. There are various Agricultural Revolutions occurred in India. Apart from just the exam point of view, it is good that all the citizens of India are aware of innovations in the Agriculture field.

Agricultural Revolutions in India 

India is primarily an agricultural economy and the majority of its people e.g; 58% are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture. But the agricultural sector contributes nearly 17% of the GDP of India. As per the theory of Gunnar Myrdal (1956), it is in the agriculture sector that the battle for long-term economic developments will be won or lost. 

According to M.S. Swaminathan, if agriculture goes wrong, nothing else will have a chance to get right in India.

In India, the agricultural output depends on the monsoon as nearly 55% of the area sown is dependent on rainfall. 

What is Agriculture? 

The domestication of plants and animals is known as agriculture. It includes cultivation of crops, animal husbandry, horticulture, viticulture, sericulture, silviculture, floriculture etc. Being located in tropical and subtropical latitudes, the greater part of the agricultural land of India can produce two or more than two crops in a year.

Indian Agriculture - Challenges

Stunted Yield : 

The yield of most of the crops has not improved substantially and in some cases (wheat, gram, pulses, sugarcane and bajra) fluctuated downward.

Soil Erosion : 

Soil Erosion, water-logging, reduction in underground water tables are some of the serious problems of Indian agriculture.

Mismanagement of Public Distribution System : 

The Public Distribution System (PDS) is not working enough, lot of poor people are out of the reach of PDS till yet.

Inadequate Marketing Facilities : 

In the greater parts of the country, including the areas of Green Revolution, the farmers are not getting remunerative prices.  

About Agricultural Revolutions :

Black Revolution : 

The government had initiated to increase the production of petroleum products, and to accelerate the production of ethanol, and to mix it up with petrol to produce biodiesel.

Pink Revolution : 

It used to denote the technological revolutions in the meat and poultry processing sector.

Grey Revolution : 

Grey revolution is related to increased fertilizer production. It is basically associated with the mal effects of the green revolution of India focusing on what can happen if the new agricultural equipment turns things wrong.

White Revolution : 

It was launched by the Indian Government in 1970. The objective of this initiative is to develop and help the dairy industry sustain itself economically by developing a cooperative while providing employment to the poor farmers. This revolution helped in increasing of milk productivity and the milk products got sold at competitive market prices. The aim of the White Revolution was to make India one of the largest milk producers in the world.

Yellow Revolution : 

In the Yellow Revolution, rising from the ‘net importer’ state, India achieved the status of a self-sufficient and net exporter. An all-time record of 25 million tonnes of oilseeds production from annual oilseed crops was attained during the early nineties.

Green Revolution : 

It is a term coined to describe the emergence and diffusion of new seeds of cereals. Norman Borlaug is the father of the Green Revolution in the world, while M.S. Swaminathan is the father of the Green revolution in India. This revolution had led to an increase in higher-yielding varieties of seeds due to improved agronomic technology. It allowed the then-developing country, India, to overcome poor agricultural productivity.

Silver Revolution : 

Due to this revolution, the production of eggs was tremendously increased in the country. which become possible due to medical science and more protein-rich food for the hens.

Golden Revolution : 

In India, the period between 1991 to 2003 was known as the period of the Golden Revolution. This revolution made India a world leader in the production of bananas, mangoes, coconut & spices. Apart from it provided sustainable livelihood to the farmers and nutrition options to the common man. 

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