Treaty of Yandaboo 1826 : Importance and Impact of Treaty of Yandaboo

Short Note on Treaty of Yandaboo 1826

Hello, aspirants are you preparing for UPSC/APSC? If yes, then you must be aware of the most important History topic Indian as well as Assam history the Treaty of Yandaboo 1826 : Importance and Impact of Treaty of Yandaboo for the upcoming UPSC/APSC Prelims or Mains exam preparation. Therefore every aspirants need to know the important topics for UPSC & APSC exams. In this regard "World_Polity" decides to provide you the most important history topic a short note on Treaty of Yandaboo 1826 for UPSC & APSC Prelims & Mains. Infact the Indian History and Assam History will be a key topic in the history section for the upcoming exams.

Treaty of Yandaboo 1826 : Importance and Impact of Treaty of Yandaboo

Short Note on Treaty of Yandaboo 1826

Treaty of Yandaboo 1826 : Importance and Impact of Treaty of Yandaboo

The Treaty of Yandabo is the peace treaty that put an end to the First Anglo-Burmese war with the British emerging victorious. The treaty was signed on 24 February 1826, almost two years after the war broke out on 5 March 1824. The treaty was signed by General Sir Archibald Campbell on the British side and on the Burmese side by the Governor of Legaing Maha Min Hla Kyaw Htin.

The British army had reached Yandabo village which was just eighty kilometres from the then capital Ava. This was one of the main reasons why the Burmese agreed to sign the treaty without any discussion.

Provisions or the Terms of the Treaty of Yandabo

The terms of the Treaty of Yandabo are as follows :

• The Burmese agreed to cede Assam, Manipur, Arakan, Tanesserim coast to the British completely without any type of control over these territories.

• The Burmese were to stop all interference in Cachar and Jaintia hills.

• The Burmese had to pay an indemnity of one million pound sterling in four instalments to the British with the first instalment being paid immediately. The second instalment was to be paid within the next 100 days. The last two instalments were to be paid within two years. The British also made it clear that they would not leave Yandabo till the second instalment was paid.

• The treaty forced the Burmese to allow exchange of diplomatic representatives between Calcutta and Ava.

• The Burmese were also asked to sign a commercial treaty with the British in due course of time. This simply meant that the British were to have more control over trade practices in and with Burma.

Initial Negotiations

The initial peace negotiations began in September 1825 when the British were already in full control and had an upper hand. After their victory in the battle of Danubyu, the British consolidated their control in Lower Burma, Rakhine, Taninthayi coast, Assam and Manipur.

The British wanted the Burmese to recognize the independence of Manipur. The British also wanted the Burmese to stop all intervention in Assam and Cachar. The British also wanted the Burmese to cede Rakhine along with all its dependent territories.

The British further demanded the Burmese to pay an indemnity of two million sterling pounds and that the Burmese receive a British resident in the Court of Ava.

The British also made clear that the territories of Taninthayi and Yangon would be held by the British until the indemnity was paid by the Burmese. The Court of Ava had not expected so much penalty.

The Burmese were also unwilling to cede the various western territories. The Burmese envoy, Lord of Kawlin replied to the initial negotiations that the Burmese would give up claim of Assam and Manipur.

The Burmese also objected to the choice of the British of the future ruler of Manipur. The Burmese agreed to cede Taninthayi coast but not Rakhine. The British, however, were unimpressed and did not agree to the terms laid down by the Burmese.

The initial negotiations between the British and the Burmese broke down and the Burmese army decided to fight on to gain back control of their territories.

In November 1825, the Burmese made an effort to recapture Pyay and succeeded. However, by early December, the British with superior men and weaponry were able to defeat the Burmese altogether.

The final negotiations of the Treaty of Yandabo were not negotiations but the demands of the British that the Burmese had no option but to agree. The terms of the treaty were laid down keeping in mind the loss that the British had incurred in the war.

Importance of the Treaty of Yandabo

The Treaty of Yandabo finally enabled the British to annex Burma and consolidate their position in South East Asia.

The treaty put an end to the most expensive and the largest war in the British Indian history. The battle cost the British between five million sterling pounds to thirteen million sterling pounds, thus leading to severe economic crisis in British India in 1833.

About 15,000 European and Indian soldiers lost their lives with even a higher number on the Burmese side. The Treaty marked the beginning of the end of Burmese independence. The powerful Burmese empire that always posed a threat for the British was finally conquered and crippled.

The British were able to secure the Eastern Frontier. The War and the Treaty left Burma weak economically and politically and enabled the British to engulf the entire country by 1885.

Aftermath of the Treaty of Yandabo

The Treaty of Yandabo brought humiliation and long lasting financial burden on the Burmese. During the battle, a whole generation of Burmese men had been wiped out.

The Court of Ava could not come to terms with the severe loss of men and their territories. It made several failed attempts to get the territories back. An uninvited British representative in the Court of Ava was a constant reminder of the humiliation and defeat that the Burmese suffered.

The indemnity of one million sterling pounds was a considerable amount even in Europe those days. The indemnity left the Burmese economy and treasury crippled and thus the Treaty of Yandabo was able to achieve its basic objective. The War and the Treaty also affected the British.

For the British, the cost of the war left the British economy in crisis and also bankrupted the Bengal Agency Houses in 1833. The East India Company had to give up its privileges and the British also lost their monopoly of trade to China.

Conclusion of the Treaty of Yandabo

Well the treaty was a complete humiliation to the Burmese and an enduring financial burden, whereas for the British it was a moment of utmost pride and valour as territories like Assam became a part of British India.

The British became the controller of Assam and the masters of Brahmaputra Valley and began to impose their rules. All these crossed a century now but in some way or the other, the impact of the treaty can still be felt by the entire region.

Must Read : Decline and Fall of the Ahom Kingdom

Queries Related to Treaty of Yandabo 1826 :

1. Who was Recognised as the Raja of Manipur by the Treaty of Yandaboo?

Ans : A peace treaty was signed between the Burmese and the British on 24 February 1826 known as the Treaty of Yandaboo. According to the article no. 2 of the Treaty Gambhir Singh was declared the independent ruler of Manipur. Gambhir Singh reigned until his death on 9 January 1834.

2. Who liberated Manipur from the rule of Myanmar in 1826?

Ans : On Feb. 24, 1826, Bagyidaw's government signed the Treaty of Yandabo; its terms included cession of Tenasserim and Arakan to the British, payment of an indemnity equivalent to £1,000,000, and renunciation of all Myanmar claims in Assam and Manipur, which became British protectorates.

3. Where is Yandaboo?

Ans : Yandabo is a village on the Ayeyarwady River in Myingyan Township, central Burma. The Treaty of Yandabo which ended the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826), was signed here on 24 February 1826.

4. Who won the First Anglo-Burmese war?

Ans : British

5. Who won Second Anglo-Burmese War?

Ans : The war resulted in a British victory with more Burmese territory being annexed to the Company Raj.

6. In which year was Burma annexed by the British?

Ans : After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a lieutenant-governorship) in 1897.

7. Which Treaty marked the establishment of British rule in Assam?

Ans : The colonial era began with the establishment of British control after the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, and the post-colonial era began in 1947 after the Independence of India.

8. What were the two conditions of the Treaty of Yandaboo?

Ans : According to the treaty, the Burmese agreed to: Cede to the British- Assam, Manipur, Rakhine (Arakan), and the Taninthayi (Tenasserim) coast south of the Salween River. Cease all interference in Cachar region of Assam and the Jaintia Hills district. Pay an indemnity of one million pounds sterling in four installments.

9. Which period is known as Company Raj in Assam?

Ans : 1826 to 1858

10. When did Burma separated from India?

Ans : 1937

11. Who was the first British commissioner in Assam?

Ans : Richard Harte Keatinge was the first chief commissioner of Assam.

12. How many wars did Anglo Burma have?

Ans : There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1824 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885). 

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