Characterstics of Fascist Philosophy

Fascism: Characteristics of Fascist Philosophy 

Fascist considered state as an end in itself. State was glorified at the cost of individuals. According to fascist State is an independent entity with a real will of its own. Its existence and ends are more important than those of its individual members. They regard the state as a spiritual being and an ethical entity. They consider state “as a spiritual inheritance of ideas and sentiments which each generation receives from those preceding it hands it down to the succeeding generation”. State has a will and personality. Mussolini calls it “the ethnic state”.

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Features of Fascism :

Fascist believed in authoritarian, totalitarian and omnipotent state. They were opposed to democracy, liberalism and popular sovereignty. They emphasized on duties of the citizens and not on their rights. They did not believe that the individual had some inherent or inalienable rights. Authority of the state is absolute. They did not favour the composition of government based on universal suffrage. They were opposed to parliamentary form of government. They advocated that government should be administered by a few strong and capable men. Sovereignty rest not with the people, but with the state. Only elites are competent to speak for the nation. Masses are not competent to govern themselves. 

People had no right to criticize the government and their only function was to perform the duties assigned to them by the state. According to fascists there should be only one party in the state and the government should be controlled by the leaders of that party. 

In a country Fascist party alone is regarded as the conscience keeper of the state. Government should control the press and the education system. Fascist state is both autocratic and aristocratic.

Practically fascism is always emerge opposed to democracy. For them democracy is the worst form of government and compare it to a “decaying corpse”. They consider democracy as stupid, corrupt, slow‐moving, impractical and inefficient. In their opinion, in democracy people are deluded to believe that they exercise sovereignty, but in reality sovereignty resides in and is exercised by irresponsible and secret forces.

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Fascism supported war and violence and put emphasis on violence and lies. It defended violence as a means of achieving political ends. Violence played a major part in Mussolini capturing and sustaining power in Italy. 

Violence was considered morally necessary and they believed that enemies must be annihilated. They justified the mass murders in concentration camps. For fascist war was always considered not only necessary but even inevitable.

Mussolini said “war is to man, what maternity is to women”. Fascism did not believe in reason. They consider man always as an irrational animal and his social and political activities were based only on that principle. 

Fascism was a revolt against reason. They believed in blind obedience and the leadership principle. Reason was discouraged and emotions and sentiments which were blind, and faith which was orthodox in nature, were encouraged.

Fascist were opposed to internationalism. For them “international peace is a cowards dream”. They openly advocated aggressive warfare and imperialist expansion. Imperialism for Mussolini “is the eternal and immutable law of life”. Italian expansion was a matter of life and death for Mussolini. 

Duty of the state was only to itself and not to the world as a whole. Fascist did not believe in basic human equality. Fascist society not only accepts the fact of human inequality, but also goes further and affirms inequality as the ideal. 

In fascist code, men are superior to women, soldiers to civilians, party members to non‐party members, one’s own nation to that of others, victors in a war to the vanquished and strong to the weak. 

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