Polity - Meaning of Polity and Politics

Introductory part of Polity & Politics--

=> Polity is mainly a specific form or a system of state or society. The condition of being constituted as a state or the opposite organized community or body.

The english word ‘politics’ mainly derives from the Latin word "Politicus" which in turn is derived from Greek term 'Polis'. In Greek the word 'Polis' means ‘city-state’. The subject which infact studies all the activities is called Politics. (It is also translated as ‘city’ or ‘polis’, or simply englicized as ‘polis’).  

The Greek political philosopher Aristotle was called as the father of political science was a true believer of that questions of the state is specially associated with how it should be organized, and also the way it should pursue its ends, which were only fundamental to the achievement of happiness.

His text "Politics" could be a search of varied varieties of state organizations and tries to elucidate the state which may ultimately cause the foremost fulfilled citizens. The term Politics in modern era is known as Political Science and the term Political Science was first used by the French writer Jean Bodin in 16th century. 

Therefore, politics is concern of everybody with any sense of responsibility. Politics is a struggle for power and every activity which is concern with the struggle for power is political activity.

Basic features of Politics --

1. Politics means the actual behaviour of people.

2. Politics is always concerned with the day today activities of government.

3. Politics always provides the way of getting the desired objectives.

4. Politics is the manifestation of civilise and ordered society. 

Forms of Government--
 Aristotle argued that there are six general ways during which societies may be organized under political rule, wishing on who ruled, and for whom they ruled...

Those within the center from top to bottom he referred it as “true forms” of state , while those within the right side from top to bottom were the “defective and perverted forms”.

The Scope of Politics --

Politics which means who deals with the problems of state and government. It involves a stufy of past, present and future of state. Therefore the scope of politics are discussed here --

i) Study of state and government --

Politics always deals with the nature and formation of state and tries to understand the various forms and functions of government. It makes through investigation into the origin of the state. It also deals with the elements of state, political institutions etc. 

ii) Study of Political Theory --

It is a major branch of politics. On the basis of political ideas or thoughts of political thinkers it formulate the definition of the concepts like democracy, liberty, equality etc. Well It deals with all the aspects of political science. 

iii) Study of Political Institution ---

The study of politics includes study of constitution, comparative government etc. It deals with the nature of different political institutions including government by explaining their merits and demerits and their structure on comparative basis. 

iv) Study of Leadership --

The scope of politics includes the study of leadership too. They basically exercise the power which are in the state. This is an essential part of the scope of politics. 

v) Study of the Adjustments of Individuals with the State --

It is very much interesting to study the nature of relationship between individuals and the state to examine how man adjust within the society. The state whole heartedly guarantees certain rights and liberty to the citizens. State also imposes certain reasonable restrictions on the people. 

vi) Study of International Relation and International Laws --

It also includes wide range of topics like diplomacy i.e. is international politics, international lawand organizations like UN. Human society at present is viewed from a world perspective. Therefore the study of international relation in politics today has become an independen discipline. 

In our present day today life we frequently use the word politics in order to mean something unusual, complicated or controversial behaviour of a personor group of persons or the doubtful attitude of any kind of individual. But in political science the word politics has a deeper meaning. 

* Frequently asked questions related to Politics --

Q. Do we find politics in seemingly non-political domains? 

= Now we need to realise that politics is an important and integral part of any kind of society. A society that wants to sustain itself needs to take account of the multiple needs and interests of its members. A number of social institutions and not political institutions such as family, tribes, educatiinal institutions in the matter of properly succession right for women, defence of weaker section, right to tour abroad, economic institutions, terrorism and other forms of violence -- all comes under the domain of politics. 

Q. Can political arguements be resolved through reasoning? 

= Many theorists believed that political arguements cannot be resolved through proper reasoning because of -

a) No scientific methods

b) Lack of objectivity

c) No precision

d) Disagreements of opinion

Some other schoolars believes that political arguements can be resolved through proper reasoning. Their contention is based on the following grounds -

a) Rational principles

b) Scientific method

c) Political experiments

d) Observatiin and experiments

e) Political ideas are based on political ideas and validity

Thus, we can conclude that political arguements can be resolved through proper reasoning only.  

_Thank You _

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